Always cut to a bud, lateral branch, or main trunk. Do not leave stubs.Use the three-cut method for large limbs which are more than two inches in diameter.When pruning back to a main stem or another branch, do not make a flush cut. Instead make a cut outside the raised branch collar. The collar contains chemicals that are a barrier against pathogens and help the tree form woundwood. Do not remove more than one-quarter of the living crown of a tree at one time. If it is necessary to remove more, do it over successive years.